This module deals with the well-being of adults between the ages of 18 and 60 years. It reviews family dynamics as they relate to the growth and development and the developmental tasks of adulthood. Legislative acts, pertaining to the family as well as family budgeting are included. Other issues include reproductive health, the public health approach to non-communicable diseases affecting adults and the health of the adult at the workplace.
For practicum, each student will be assigned a family to work with over a ten-week period, at the end of which each will present a family study to include a care plan and a budget plan of the family. Students will also gain experiences at Maternal, Child Health and Family Planning Clinics.
2.0 MODULE OBJECTIVES/LEARNING OUTCOMES
General objectives for students
Upon completion of the module, students will be able to:
1. Apply knowledge of the bio-psychosocial growth and development of adults, their basic needs and family dynamics in working with them to reinforce strengths and/or meet identified needs.
2. Educate individual and families on the use of and access to services provided under selected laws/acts related to the family.
3. Guide adults in the preparation of a family budget to meet their personal and family needs;
4. Utilize community resources in meeting the health care needs of individuals and families;
5. Use knowledge of reproductive health in addressing the health care needs of the adult male and female.
6. Carry out surveillance for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
7. Utilize a comprehensive approach in non-communicable disease prevention and control programmes for adults.
8. Carry out assessment at work sites to determine health hazards.
9. Educate employers and employees on the prevention and control of occupation health hazards.
3.0 MODULE CONTENT AND CONTEXT
UNIT 1: FAMILY DYNAMICS
HOURS: 30 Theory
On completion of this unit the student will be able to:
1. Review bio-psycho-social growth and development and basic needs of the adult;
2. Discuss developmental tasks related to the adult and family
3. Discuss factors influencing family life.
4. Give anticipatory guidance to families at risk.
5. Identify coping strategies used by the family
6. Refer families in need to appropriate family support systems
7. Examine gender related issues and resources available
8. Analyze legislative acts relating to the family
9. Explain the purpose/function of Legislative Acts pertaining to the family.
10. Discuss the importance of budgeting to meet individual and family needs.
11. Identify factors which determine how money is spent by the family.
12. Encourage individuals and families to apply the principles of money management.
13. Assist individuals and families to prepare budgets in keeping with their income.
14. Use community resources available to help individuals and families to meet their needs.
- Bio-psycho-social growth and development of the adult
- Basic needs of the adult
- Developmental tasks of the adult
- Developmental tasks of the family
- Factors affecting family life
- Families at risk
- Coping strategies of family
- Support Systems of the family
- Gender issues
- The law and the family
- Family budgeting
- Community resources relating to meeting family needs
UNIT 2: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
HOURS: 5 Theory
On completion of this unit students will be able to:
- Define reproductive health;
- State the objectives of reproductive health;
- Identify the scope of reproductive health and reproductive health services;
- Discuss reproductive health status indicators;
- Examine Ministry of Health’s objectives as they relate to reproductive health;
- Review the aims and objectives of antenatal, intra-natal and postnatal care;
- Discuss factors that can affect the health of mother and/or fetus;
- Identify risk factors of pregnancy;
- Evaluate the effects of pregnancy risk factors on the possible outcome of pregnancy;
- Discuss the impact of HIV/AIDS on the pregnant and postpartum woman;
- Describe the Ministry of Health’s programme for the prevention of mother to child Transmission of HIV;
- Use a comprehensive approach in the management of the pregnant and postpartum woman;
- Discuss the roles of the father during the pre and postnatal periods;
- Advise families on the social benefits available to them;
- Critique the Government of Jamaica’s Population Policy;
- Identify the components of family planning service;
- Discuss various methods of contraception;
- Discuss contraception methods as they relate to the postpartum woman and the woman 35 years and over;
- Examine the male’s responsibility as it relates to family planning;
- Analyze factors influencing family planning acceptance/non acceptance;
- Discuss the role and challenges of the National Family Planning Board;
- Discuss the purpose, frequency and methodology of cancer screening in relation to specific target population;
- Demonstrate beginning skills in performing a Pap smear;
- Identify the main areas of integration of service between STI’s and family planning;
- Discuss the effects of infertility, abortion, impotence and promiscuity on the sexuality of the male and female;
- Discuss the menopause and climacteric in relation to changes, coping mechanisms, trends in management and specific resources available during that period.
· Objectives of reproductive health
· Scope of reproductive health and reproductive health services
· Reproductive health status indicators
· Ministry of Health’s Objectives for Reproductive Health
· Aims and objectives of ante-natal, intro-natal and post natal case
· Factors affecting health of mother and/or fetus
· Pregnancy risk factors
· Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS/STI’s
· Prevention program – mother-to-child transmission of HIV
· Comprehensive approach to management of the pregnant and postpartum woman and family
· Roles of father
· Social benefits relating to reproductive health
· Family planning
· Role and challenges of the National Family Planning Board
· Cancer screening
· Sexually transmitted infections and family planning integration
· Problems affecting sexuality
· Menopause and climacteric
UNIT 3: NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
HOURS: 5 Theory
At the end of the unit, the student will be able to:
1. Define the terms chronic disease and the burden of disease;
2. Describe the scope of non-communicable diseases affecting adults;
3. Analyze the burden of disease as it relates to the chronic diseases;
4. Describe adult risk behaviours, which contribute to non-communicable diseases;
5. Examine possible responses to chronic diseases as they relate to the young adult and the middle aged male and female;
6. Identify possible alterations in body image as a result of non-communicable diseases;
7. Examine the impact of alteration in body image on the adult male and female;
8. Describe the epidemiology of non-communicable diseases identified;
9. Identify possible sources of information for surveillance of non-communicable disease in adults;
10. Use a comprehensive approach in the management of non-communicable diseases of adults.
11. Examine the Ministry of Health’s Priority Health Objectives for chronic Diseases and Injury prevention
· Definition of terms
· Chronic and degerative disorders
· Burden of diseases
· Adult risk behaviours
· Age and gender responses to chronic diseases
· Alterations in body image
· Impact of alteration in body image
· Epidemiology of chronic diseases
· Surveillance of non-communicable diseases
· Comprehensive approach to management of non-communicable diseases
· Ministry of Health’s Priority Objectives 2000 for Chronic Diseases and Injury Prevention
UNIT 4: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
HOURS: 5 Theory
On completion of this unit students will be able to:
- Define occupational health;
- Discuss the development of occupational health in Jamaica and own territory;
- Discuss the development of occupational health nursing in Jamaica and own territory;
- State the objectives of occupational health;
- Discuss factors influencing employees and workers health;
- Identify health hazards related to occupational health;
- Identify areas of the body vulnerable to occupational health hazards;
- Examine some occupational related problems;
- Discuss the burden of occupational related health problems;
- Discuss primary, secondary and tertiary preventive measures employed in the work settings to promote worker’s health;
- Describe services that should be available for employees, at the worksite;
- Explain social benefits that are available for employees;
- Discuss policies and legislation related to occupational health;
- Describe the role’s of the public health nurse in occupational health;
- Compare and contrast the roles of the following: in occupational health Ministry of Health Ministry of Labour
- Definitions; occupational health, ergonomics
- Development of occupational health and occupational health nursing in Jamaica and own territory
- Objectives of occupational health
- Factors influencing employees health
- Areas vulnerable to health hazards
- Occupational related health problems/diseases
- Burden of occupational-related health problems/disease
- Prevention programmes in the work setting
- Services available at work-sites
- Social benefits for the employees
- Occupational legislation
- Roles of the public health nurse in occupational health
- Roles of the following in occupational health
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Labour
- International labour organization
- Trade Unions
4.0 Learning and Teaching Approaches
The teaching learning activities for unit I will involve assignment to a family in close proximity to the campus. Students will spend a total of approximately 20 hours interacting with families and assisting them to meet health and health related needs. Visiting will be carried once weekly or forth nightly for a total of 5 official visits. Following visits tutorials will be conducted in order to clarify issues and to give guidance. New information will be presented in the form of classroom lectures.
For the unit on reproductive health Unit 2; students will be engaged in examination and critiquing of Government policy on reproductive health and the services related to reproductive health. New information will be delivered in the form of seminars and lectures.
Seminars and discussions will be employed to cover the unit on chronic non-communicable diseases. Visits to workplaces will be organized so that students can gain first hand experiences in occupational health and occupational health nursing. These visits will be supported by lectures and discussions the classroom.
5.0 ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
The assessment methods for this module includes the compilation and presentation of the family study, a budget plan for the family of study and a mid semester examination. The assignments to families will enable students to meet the objectives related to Unit I. Students will write an examination at the middle of semester which will test their knowledge in the other 3 units of the module. There is also a final examination attend of the semester.
Weightings of assessment procedures
Family study 15%
Family project 10%
Mid semester Exam 25%
Final Examination 50%
6.0 BREAKDOWN OF HOURS
Class room lectures and Tutorials 41 hours
Practical including off campus learning activities 45 hours
Assessment activities 4 hours
7.0 TEXTBOOK AND REFERENCE
Sayles, Elsie. The Council of Voluntary Social Services. The First 50 years. Kingston Publishers, Jamaica 1994
Clarke, Mary Joe, Nursing in the Community. Stamford Connecticut: Appleton and Lange, 1996.
Davies, Brian Meredith. Community Health Preventive Medicine and Social Services: London Cassell Ltd. 1979
Reid, Una V. Occupational Health and Safety in the Caribbean Region, Initiative for Collaboration; Kingston Jamaica 1989
National Family Planning Board. Jamaica Family Planning Service Delivery Guidelines Kingston Jamaica, 1999
The Policy Project. Reproductive Health in Jamaica Vol. I Analysis of Current Reproductive Health Status, Gaps Needs and Opportunities November 1999
Pan American Health Organizaition. A Guide for the Development of Diabetes Prevention and Control Programmes in the Caribbean, PAHO/CPC/Barbados PAHO/WHO 1998. WHO Current World Health Reports
This module reviews and elaborates on physical, psychological, and developmental models of growth and development of the newborn to adolescents. The Nursing Process is the instrument through, which issues of the different age groups are examined using a health promotion approach.
The module is divided into the following units:
Unit1: The Infant to the Pre-Schooler
Unit2: The School Child
Unit3: The Adolescents
Health promotion strategies and programs and various approaches to health promotion are the major areas of focus for this course. The Ministry of Health’s policy, programs and strategies on health promotion are emphasized. An overview of the 5th Global Conference on health promotion Mexico City is also presented.
The following are the units for the course
UNIT 1 Approaches to Health Promotion
UNIT 2 Health Education and other strategies for health promotion
UNIT 3 Ministry of Health Priority Programmes & Strategies for Health Promotion
UNIT 4 Reports of the Global Conference on Health Promotion, Mexico City
UNIT 5 Public Health Nutrition